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Fundamental Movement Skills

Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) underpin daily living activities and serve as the foundation for engaging in sports and more complex movement skills as children grow. The early years are particularly crucial for establishing and developing this foundation.

FMS are generally categorised into three main themes:

  1. Locomotor Skills refer to body movements involved in transitioning from one place to another. Many locomotor skills are utilised in daily activities (e.g. running after a bus or leaping over a puddle). They are also fundamental in various games and sports (e.g. jumping up to catch a ball or dodging an opponent) as well as during active play (e.g. crawling through a tunnel or climbing in the playground).

  2. Object Control (manipulative) Skills require the child to control an object using part of the body or using an equipment. Object control skills involve:
    • Sending an object away (e.g., rolling, throwing or kicking a ball)
    • Receiving an object (e.g., catching a balloon)
    • Controlling an object (e.g., bouncing or dribbling a ball)

  3. Stability (non-locomotor) Skills involve a child in maintaining and/or attaining balance. Stability is a key element for every human movement and necessary for all locomotor and object skills. Examples of stability skills include static and dynamic balance, bending and curling, turning, twisting, and stretching.



Hopping Forward

Jumping for Distance

Jumping for Height

Leaping Over Obstacles

Jumping off a Height

Sliding & Dodging



Object Control

Bouncing & Dribbling With Hand

Dribbling With Long Implement

Kicking to Target

Dribbling With Feet

Rolling to Target

Striking With Hand & Implement

Throwing & Catching

Throwing to Target (with force)

Throwing to Target


Static Balance

Dynamic Balance (walking on line)

Learn more about stability skills at the playground here.

If your preschool is keen to contribute your activity ideas and resources to this website, please reach out to us here.